Miha Kralj is a Senior Architect on Microsoft Architecture team. He’s responsible for leading architectural communities in helping the global architecture profession to mature and grow in the changing landscape. He joined Microsoft in 1998 as a consultant, working on major projects across Eastern Europe and the Asia region. Prior, he worked with IBM in Central and Eastern Europe. He’s a Microsoft Certified Architect, a Project Management Professional, and a Certified Information Systems Security Professional.
Greg Low: Introducing Show 40 with guest Miha Kralj. Our guest today is Miha Kralj, Senior Architect on Microsoft Architecture team. He’s responsible for leading architectural communities in helping the global architecture profession to mature and grow in the changing landscape. He joined Microsoft in 1998 as a consultant, working on major projects across Eastern Europe and the Asia region. Prior, he worked with IBM in Central and Eastern Europe. He’s a Microsoft Certified Architect, a Project Management Professional, and a Certified Information Systems Security Professional. Welcome Miha.
Miha Kralj: Thank you. I’m happy to be on this call. I’m amazed at how you introduce me. I’m not sure I do that much at all.
Greg Low: Where I came across you recently was the Lock Note at TechEd in Australia. I gather you’re also the opening keynote for TechEd New Zealand, which I wasn’t at. I was able to chat with you that evening. Interesting to get your perspective on the future of the industry. It would be good if you could start with what your role is and a bit of your background so people know where you come from.
Miha Kralj: First, I did not do a New Zealand keynote, but a breakout. It was the same topic. Starting from that perspective, what I do. Interesting how the whole session, talk was on the future of IT, how IT will change in next decade, why you should care. I called it that for trusted advisors. Partners we have in Microsoft who we sell to as large enterprises. They can get someone on side, CIO, CTO, class of people, someone from Microsoft who helps change their IT. Need to understand trends that are coming. Not the ones deploying, finding stuff, ensuring Exchange configured. Their to help people think as far ahead as possible, decisions not right at this time, others that should be made instead. This is how talk born. How to look at trends, not cyclical, but in the future. First, unstoppable trends. Sure as a Tsunami wave, on other side, those that will change IT or whole society. To your question, why I’m doing this. I’m on interesting team in Microsoft. Halfway between customers and product team. From arch level, not prototypes, but trying to anticipate future arch trends, trends in all of IT, common industry, what we're missing, need to add, need to build. Working on assumption networking software in enterprise. New models of going from on premise to off premise, the cloud.
Greg Low: Interesting is in Lock Note you used IBM as example. Telling. Might be worth sharing.
Miha Kralj: When you sit with trusted advisors, people with big egos, you need to create rapport rather quickly. Why I’m paranoid about future, looking at and anticipating? When I was at IBM, I saw how they went from hero to state today. Today, formidable, but IBMers even agree glory days are far gone.
Greg Low: There were days when it was the industry.
Miha Kralj: For 30 years, defined industry, equipment. Stack of things. SMA defined on mainframe, APN, APS. Everything, how it operated. Pure IBM think tank. Yet, marginal if not irrelevant today.
Greg Low: I have to admit to background in 370 Assembler and things like that.
Miha Kralj: If you would not change, stay Assembler programmer, what would you do today? Obvious trend in development is we’re moving quicker than people see. Through various stages, levels. Managed language developer today, C Sharp, Java, in ten years, equally desirable as Assembler or FORTRAN programmers today. Probably niche market, but not mainstream coding.
Greg Low: One thing I talk to finishing University classes, I point out constant learning. Must be prepared that 90 percent of what you know today will be useless four to five years from now. The ten to 20 percent you get to keep you out of trouble.
Miha Kralj: Correct. I meet PhD professor, someone like that; I ask when they did PhD. They say six or seven years ago. That tells me that they used to know something. Whatever they learned then is nearly irrelevant today. Half time of knowledge, how long your knowledge takes you, shorter and shorter. Perpetual education cycle. Universities great place to learn how to learn. Students need to take that out. Not just knowledge. Universities can’t prepare otherwise. They prepare IT industry to learn current on the job skills. Five years from now, top ten jobs probably don’t exist in industry today. If not, how to develop curriculum for something we don’t know?
Greg Low: I value from universities the research, collaborative, curiosity, things like that rather than specifics.
Miha Kralj: Yes. Two approaches. I’d say with pace and speed of change in IT, biotech, continual, most can give students is teach how to learn the rest of their lives.
Greg Low: Yes. I also found those coming out of universities that it displays persistence and ability to complete tasks.
Miha Kralj: Yes. The future. University focuses on various levels, how to transfer knowledge, build skills, rational thinking. Do you need University at all? Listen to professors? Do exams? Physical classes to learn? You can see huge influx of tele-learning, correspondence courses. Question, what will happen to universities in ten to 15 to 20 years? Brick and mortar? Getting drunk, or some big eLearning data centers?
Greg Low: A lot have already. I spent time doing external study. I was doing while working. Only thing that fit in lifestyle.
Miha Kralj: Right. Debate around current stage of web. Social web, etc. Main reason why those want physical university or conference, come talk, touch, smell each other, three reasons. People like to congregate, like to be recognized, like to contribute. Not learning, gathering knowledge, harvesting. First generation of Internet about finding, harvesting, best information, making Internet, building encyclopedia out. Not there anymore. More social tool. To me, universities and typical social interactions can be replaced with digital technologies.
Greg Low: Dynamic, maybe as we get better video. I find when people only have particularly email interactions, I find not prepared to give each other benefit of doubt. Once they actually met the person, they seemed to have different degree of willingness to bend.
Miha Kralj: Of course. Down to typical communication theory. Five communication channels. Words, voice, facial, posture, movement. Digital organization of reality, if you got more than my sound of voice and word, you’d feel more real close and feel more immersed. Webcam gives you one more channel. Talking head makes you feel closer.
Greg Low: Good. Why do you think IBM isn’t still at the center of industry?
Miha Kralj: Many reasons. Many opinions. Mine is IBM wanted to protect what they found most sacred, the mainframe. I tell others that enterprises and businesses and corps need to learn to render own top cash cow obsolete. If you have the best, number one on market, who would best render obsolete and replace? You don’t want your competition to do that. You either replace with better, upgrade, or change paradigm. Always has to be you or you die.
Greg Low: Point you made in Lock Note wasn’t lack of clever people, great technology.
Miha Kralj: IBM is still great company. They lost so many millions in so few years that it’s incredible. I want to teach people that IBM was victim of own success. They made technology which alters reality. Technology has power to do that. We behave differently with technology than without. If you went to Australian Outback without planes or technology, certain death.
Greg Low: I find funny, we were at trivia evening discussing that. In the book Down Under, authors notes that almost everything we have is named after explorers who died.
Miha Kralj: One of the best books Bill Bryson wrote, his chapter is on radio with long silence, then a commentator saying that was a good inning. Keeps going. Cricket game. He described from hilarious perspective. In Cricket, not much happens.
Greg Low: A game where I have to be doing something else, working on the computer. They replay anything interesting five times. I can’t sit and just watch unless the current 20/20 series, really fast games. I describe Cricket as the only game you could play for five days, all day, every day, at end more than half the time, a draw.
Miha Kralj: Yes, and every day you have to drink tea.
Greg Low: That you can have no result after five days is beyond comprehension.
Miha Kralj: Let me go back. Technology alters reality. People don’t see that. I’m shocked by our population, age thing, Generation X between our baby boomer parents, but not young enough to be digital generation. Gen X, we use technology, but we use like grandmother would use electricity. Half afraid, just don’t know how to use.
Greg Low: In Lock Note you said we have thing in our head of how we used to do.
Miha Kralj: Yes. We are not upgraded. We need to focus in upgrade mode. Upgraded Facebook, etc. Suddenly do you know when to use Facebook versus email, versus Twitter, etc.? People look at me, gosh, you’re right. So many choices, we don’t think about which is right, when. As an older generation, we usually make the wrong selection. I saw this at companies where someone is using wrong media. Something that should go on a distribution list goes on a wiki. The wiki is a forum. Could have been a disaster. The generation just entering the workforce, Generation Y, they aren’t accepting our primitive rules which would we build in businesses and enterprises, rules we think are pretty smart. They don’t accept them and live according to them. A student fresh from a progressive college in Australia, shock going to a regulated, standardized desktop probably a year old. Shabby old machine. They’re happy to have maybe 500 GB. Do you know what one terabyte costs today? Not $100 Australia. At homes, my media center has two terabytes of capacity. Which corporation gives you a one terabyte machine that most have at home? If I continue, then you have some sloppy mailbox which, if you’re good corporate, maybe 100 MGs capacity. Maybe 50, some 20 MGs. You can’t put one video file in that. Then there’s the rules, no you’re not allowed to put videos or attachments in there. This is not for this or that. To make things more miserable, add group policies and restrictions, and you have to bring up VPN and such to access mailbox from home. The new generation will see as moronic. New identity, new email address. That identity will return back when I leave company? They don’t want that. Slow, hard to access mailbox, don’t want. Will stay with Hotmail, Gmail. Don’t give me trash, just let me work. Today’s technology, it has become as sexy to talk cloud as a washing machine. You just want a mailbox. You don’t care managed code, this or that. Star schema or snowflake. You just want to store data, label smartly, access fast. Where stored, who cares?
Greg Low: As long as it disappears.
Miha Kralj: Reliance and reliability isn’t the issue. Especially moving to cloud. Several instances of same data. SSDS, SQL Server Data Services, is Microsoft flavor database in cloud, storage in cloud. Whole idea is once you decide some data stored there, you don’t know where. I’m not talking hosting or collocation, if you want to, we can take you to rack and here it is, your server. If you look at the new data center regime, no one can point at where exactly your stuff is. Several reasons for. Accessibility. You want to spread as you’re storing things people worldwide would want to access. Also, if you’re looking at new class of data centers, all hardware is virtualized, so even the SQL Server is virtual instance that you can teleport from one side of data center to other, just because one side is too hot and they want to lower electricity. Teleport instance across container or data center. For those not aware, most data centers aren’t buying servers piece by piece, rack by rack, but by container. Usually containers cost about $5 million less, about 1,000 to 2,000 servers, depending on how much storage you want. If you have right SLA, you won’t get access to inside of container. Humans fixing will ruin other hardware, turn off wrong server. Enter containers when they go beyond 95 percent capacity. If you have a thousand servers, five percent is 50 machines. You don’t enter server room until 50 machines are bad. That’s pretty interesting concept.
Greg Low: The container has few connections of any type.
Miha Kralj: Yes. The container relies on three major life supplies. Power is number one juice of any data center. Cooling. Liquid cooling. Not water. Connectivity. Big mesh connection to network. Three big pipes entering container like matrix. Remember in Matrix when Mia wakes up and looks at batteries of people giving power? I got similar feeling looking at data centers. That new class of data centers. The one Microsoft just built in Chicago. The decision to build in Chicago was interesting. Power is number one. Ten years back, our data center selected hardware based on how advanced CPU you could get for money. Bang for bucks. Now all about power. Microsoft, if there is new CPU burning half the power than current, we will likely ship back all servers from past six months and replace with power saving model, arch, or CPU.
Greg Low: Interesting, concept of each application needing to move between servers dynamically to even out temp in different parts of data center.
Miha Kralj: Yes. Every data center needs to control the heat. Core issue of technology today is if you don’t cool it, it melts. Simple as that. If you remove the typical noisy fan that runs on CPU, goes to same temp as surface as sun within seconds. Melts, fails. You have to cool it down. About two-thirds of data center power goes into cooling. About one-third moving the bits and bytes.
Greg Low: The positioning is a big issue.
Miha Kralj: The containers in Chicago are positioned like a fishbone. The whole data center looks like one big bldg on pillars. Empty space below. Containers are brought on trucks, lifted and attached to data center from underneath. Whole design is futuristic. But we have it today. Then you sit down and realize you’re sitting on 300,000 servers. Why do we need all that power? This isn’t the only data center. You realize the whole IT as a service, just emerging, what a tremendous shift in industry it will be. Instead of buying an application, you get as service. Today we’re procuring IT in same manner as buying cars. You go and list what you want, red, two-liter engine, etc. Once you buy car as service, I’m not talking financial models. What is criteria for taxi? Red, yellow? No choice Toyota or Ford. Most people don’t care. Care that driver can speak English. Driver in a plastic shell, or you’re photographed five times a minute. Which do you prefer? Taxi clean or not? You’re not thinking tires or mileage. Those are questions for the owner of the taxi. You just want to get destination, safe, decently fast. Service you don’t have bad exp with. Do you feel good? Will you call again? Think like that of IT. The big questions we ask today, will we do on premise, off premise, virtualize, mass provision servers, 500 servers. All of this becomes irrelevant when you think IT as a service. We can do it fast like SaaS, on premise, off premise. These are not services. Their things relevant to IT equivalent of petrolheads which is us. When you start moving to the massive industrialization, if you look at devices networked, add week after week, we are just beginning flash points where we have to move to the industrialization like we did with car industry. They used to be built by hand, how many factories besides Rolls Royce now build by hand? Not many. People used to build cars went away. Now pay people who build robots to build cars.
Greg Low: I saw interesting interview with Mazda factory manager in Hiroshima. He said people thought robots made his life more simple. He said when they arrived his life was a nightmare. He found if you have human welder, any variation, human would allow for. Where he had robots involved, things didn’t work. Challenge was going through supply chain, changing tolerances on everything coming into factory. He now has no doubt that the cars he produces are dramatically better than before. At the time one rolled out every 30 seconds.
Miha Kralj: Yes. I agree. That’s true. What is major difference between what robots can do. Completely different advantage and skills compared to humans. We should not mix one with other if you ask me.
Greg Low: Unstoppable trends you see?
Miha Kralj: Industrialization combined with virtualization. Lead us to global class computing. Not many orgs will build and maintain own class. Drives us to decline of on premise IT departments. If you’re looking into server room in SMB, have a good look; will go away. Things in cloud will do same, cheaper, more reliable, less human effort and intervention. Theory. Physiological. Internet caters to. Buying anything you want, delivered in couple days. Second hand, straight from supplier, huge buying moving to Internet. New generations doesn’t think how to satisfy buying needs without research or opinion of Internet. Sit in the car, go to shop, buy. Unthinkable. Why? Wasting time, money.
Greg Low: No way I’d do that now. Every single thing I buy, first look at ideas, review, comments. No matter what purchasing, can find.
Miha Kralj: Interesting slant. Review and comments. How come you don’t trust advertisement that best sofa? Used to be persuasion channel, now aside to social paradigm as people can communicate on large scale. True voice of customer, not faked and recorded by actor. Yeah right. Let me research on Internet is first reaction. Industry gone through tremendous shift because of digital. Can’t go to consumer to buy, trust me, it’s good. Few consumers of new age will buy. Few will say, OK, strong enough assertion. Expect to get contribution from society through digital media. Everything in between catered by digital.
Greg Low: Ironically, I find many corporations have support forums. Tend to not put right amount into them, yet first place I look when thinking of buying their product.
Miha Kralj: Correct. Some orgs are able to adopt, some not. If you’re successful in past, no indication that as reality changes you’ll still be successful. New technologies, business rules changing. If you don’t change, setting will not help you once paradigm shifts.
Greg Low: Looked a disk drives. Company had great examples on web site, all technical details. On support forums, every second post asked if they were still in business.
Miha Kralj: Not really good. Looking short term, you already know disasters around Electronic Arts. Games. Someone decided piracy bad, protect game in strong way. Amazon.com, game has like 5,000 people rating with single or no star because they don’t like DRM part of game. Anyone won’t see as top rated game and won’t buy. Hurts. Leadership paradigm, if you play games with employees they will know and blog about. What does that do image of corporation? Many people will blog about a manager who did X. That manager, previous type of corporate world, ok to have bad managers who jumped around different depts. Or companies. Don’t change habits. Bad manager. Jumping around made portfolio longer and juicer. Oddly, jumping because bad, but portfolio good. Won’t work in future. You will get trail on Internet which you can’t erase. What you did, who you are. Merits exposed on Internet. Colleague said not a democracy but meritocracy. Merit defining you. Who is me? Digital persona I use or me really me physically? Not one and same. I go to various web sites, behaving differently. Facebook is like my advertising. Minimal activity, conservative, reserved. But I love cooking. BigGreenEgg has active community. Different persona that I use there. Act, behave differently. Open, upfront, share recipes, tell people things about their recipes. If I’m going to analyst web site, another acct, someone else again. Professional role. Can’t be free. Need to think. You are not one person digitally. Many people, personas at same time. If you want to see business leadership of future, look at online games. Most complex, typical is World of Warcraft. To be successful, must have all skills that matter in real life. If you get CD, someone referencing leadership. Level 65, guild master. Sounds bizarre, but takes a long time to get there, trust from others to be guild master and lead other players to battle with monsters, leading in forum that you’re winning, not dying. True talent, leadership, aspects of MBAs. Real? Fake? Hard line between real and digital. Membrane thinner and thinner.
Greg Low: One example you used, you talked things like mayor of city who might be right person.
Miha Kralj: Yes. if you combine trends, predictions, if we’re going to that meritocratic world where merits count, blend of digital and physical where more immersive, less relevant what is real and digital, how probable you’d have election for major city in ten years, all candidates have best program, own political campaign, one that floats to top, the one perceived most passionate, best ideas, best budget. You’d realize 18 year old from India. Plays huge amounts of games, knows how to budget from games. Able to control complex cities, more than some major physical cities. Has true passion to make real city succeed. Would you elect?
Greg Low: Chances are, would do better job than local political hack.
Miha Kralj: Yes. Would you make him mayor?
Greg Low: I would. I see those jobs as specific management role. Well imagine world where that’s let out, anyone, anywhere, assessed on achievements.
Miha Kralj: I hear this is scary. The Matrix movie. Idea I contemplated was revisal of email. Not serving right function. If I need to inform you, why send blob of information over wire? Young people using Facebook or Twitter. Paradigm shift that we need to build digital bots. Me.bot. I.bot talking to you.bot. Only function of devices, car, shoes, iPhone, MP3, whatever, sole purpose to give you immersive collection to your my.bot. Handle everything for you in cloud. Digital in cloud. Bots will signal and let know who’s available. Decisioning, information exchange could be filtered out, basic decisioning without your physical presence. You have girlfriend. You go to her digital persona. Bot would be able to determine if she’d say yes or no to marriage proposal based on her digital emotions in past days. Bot would analyze BI information and let you know yes or no. all the bits are available today. If you create right information pool, everything you do on personal feed, computer, document, email, phone call. Patterns emerge. If you collect behavioral stream of data, more than enough data to know how many minutes and time of day you’re on phone with whomever. Bots can find out. How many emails you send to whom, when. How fast replied to. Your bot can tell you if you send email to your manager at 2am on weekend, bot can tell you not to bother, as manager never responds until Tuesday morning. Enjoy your weekend. Sounds scary.
Greg Low: Those listening, most DBAs and developers. What is biggest impact for them?
Miha Kralj: Two completely classes of jobs. First, developers. At moment, in front of big decisions. Want to do things cheaper, faster, better. Manual labor perspective, reaching limits. Cost, how to lower cost? Outsource to cheaper country. But that’s limited. Socioeconomic factors. India and China will not be poor someday. Won’t do that work. Where to go then? Speed, human nature has code speed limit. We are bad multi-taskers. Quality perspective, process platforms, technologies, defined in advance. All written in contracts, verbally agreed, but rarely met. Cost, speed, quality. Machines. What can be cheaper than software machine doing industrial production of software based on simple models coming from business analyst? Feed model in to machine, software machine gives you finished code. Speed? Completely free from variable. People, we can’t compete for speed. Their rate of life unlimited. Quality as well. You can define, measure, improve everything real time. Code. Define everything real time. I want .NET code now, bang you get it. Actually, meant Java, get in ten seconds, recompiled. Developers today? I don’t know. Just 20 years ago, FORTRAN developers, no one asked. They were gods. DBAs different breed. Entering era where rich semantics and metadata on data important. Will be important how you layout tables, relationships, referential integrity. But top priority? Important to compile code, but done automatically. Machines powerful, optimizers so good, that doing manual layout, schema, has limited life span, especially in that type of environment entering into. Can’t scale horizontally much longer until we discover quantum computing or whatever we need to find. Factor moving from vertical and horizontal. Can buy CPUs with two, four cores or more. Not far away when you will buy 256 core machine. How do you code against that? Need to do massive parallel, massive threading. No language today to do easily. Craft every thread manually today. No data can use today. All that must change.
Greg Low: Interesting to note that most Microsoft applications have spin-ups, threads. Outlook, when doing nothing has 60 to 70 threads. You get to point where that will be faction of cores on machine. So what?
Miha Kralj: When I’m reading comments of why you need Vista over XP, future? What’s not good enough? IT good enough. Makes me laugh. When you have industrialized revolution with conservatives saying machine bad. Why one to comb cotton? By hand, nicer, more beautiful. At first, they were rough, but today no one combs cotton by hand anymore. Desire to stop progress; all you can do is slow a bit. Or ridiculize yourself.
Greg Low: Key aspect relates to how much will move from in house to cloud based systems.
Miha Kralj: Two radical different thoughts. Not from Microsoft, that everything will go into cloud, all you need is stupid representation machine called browser. Extreme SaaS, all through browser. I don’t think this will work. We’re in information overload era where you need to have with you various input devices and output devices as well as something understanding context. More practical, you need something with you that knows you’re on phone call so you can’t get another. Can’t do in cloud. Something needs to accept email from user that will not inform user or send back text message. Something to decide user moved from house and whenever so, I need to Twitter. What will be that intelligent context based module that understands context, your current state of mind? Can’t do in cloud. Talked about digital persona. Part of that needs to live with you. Part of you, connecting physical and digital presence. Browser not good for that. What will move to cloud? Heavy data, heavy processes, all of that goes up. We don’t need heavy distributive computing we have today. Need heavy CPU power to do goo voice recognition, eyeball, sensible decisions, where you are. Devices talking in mesh around you so your phone device can talk to your car device. Device you store into, notebook. All devices need to talk to each other and decide local, cloud, home server, personal music collection. Music collection in cloud? Spicy personal videos you made with wife? Would you put in cloud? Likely local unless you’re weird. Large issue in next era, security and privacy. Hard to address. I don’t have answers but we know we’re in front of big problems to face. Partially regulation, legislation, advanced technologies. Ten years from now, every mesh on Internet, protocol exchange, every data, information exchange, all will be encrypted. Stored or flowing will be encrypted.
Greg Low: We have CPU cycles available to do, so doesn’t matter. Trends I notice. Many companies who traditionally would have used Microsoft Exchange, now using email provider already in cloud. Intriguing that larger companies doing this. Simple equation. Save $50/user/year. Can provision in an hour or less. Has to be tide where there will be classes of application no one interested in provisioning locally. Not just managing, but provision instantaneously, agility, more resources. Not agile in own organization.
Miha Kralj: You said “nobody”. A word I’m not in agreement with. There will always be companies that because of regulation, management, whatever reason, will have need. Another parallel. I saw photos of law firm from about 150 years ago. In corner was big safe for money. All the western movies show dynamite around, big dial on. Every business, whoever did anything with money, paid in cash. Every business stored huge quantities of money on premise. Had to have safe, security around, sturdy man to watch, clerk with just written evidence of what went in, out. Full complete dept to handle money. Today, we have full departments to handle IT. Rather than money room, server room. In future, both will equally frequent and popular. How many money safes do you see around today?
Greg Low: Very few. There are some.
Miha Kralj: Yes. Some. Someone asked if I thought there would be no more passion for technology? If you’re looking at average Joe Blow, won’t have passion for technology. Joe or Mary don’t care about microwave or washing machine or car brand. They just use. But will always have petrolheads, highly passionate about brand of car, polish, loud about it. IT will be same. Apple fans will exist no matter what. Majority could care less about Apple, Intel, or whatever. Vendors will say same.
Greg Low: Thought interest in your Lock Note, server market, number of manufacturers.
Miha Kralj: Looking back, what happened in hardware market. I was astonished. Someone asked me to look into. I didn’t believe the data at first Quite scary. Mixture of recognized brands mixed with who had significant size of market in hardware. In 1997, easily saw 24 vendors without big problem. In 1997, do you remember IPEX?
Greg Low: Vaguely.
Miha Kralj: In 1997, on the list. Australian vendor. In 2000, list down to 14. 2004, down to ten. HP, Dell, Sun, etc. Today, six significant vendors in hardware market. HP, Dell, Fujitsu, Sun, IBM, NEC. From 24, 11 years back to six. Pretty intensive. Those six vendors pump out a combined one-third of the servers they build will go to global data centers owned by Microsoft, Amazon, or Google. That’s where you realize if you’re building real data center, can’t have single strategic partnership. Global data centers consume too much, can’t have one contract with HP only. Need at least two reliable providers. Like with oil. If Google, Amazon, and Microsoft require more and more, whole pipeline dries out. You don’t get server. Option to cloud.
Greg Low: Two other things. You mentioned move into data centers, temperature and Iceland.
Miha Kralj: Obvious. Iceland. Heavy advertisement on how great to build data centers there. Cost competitive, remote, secure, technological advanced, highly educated, large power supply, produce own power on geothermal, low cost on land. Most important, the most fantastic connectivity. All of the connections, and I mean all the cables are going over Iceland. Everything that connects U.S. and Europe goes over Iceland. If you combine all, remote, cold, power cheap, the best position to serve both major parts of planet. Eurasia, U.S. Can’t get better.
Greg Low: Shifting portions of industry. That’s good.
Miha Kralj: Comes back to technology having power to alter reality. Closer to Australia, Tuvalu. Very low potential for any export. Only decent thing exported has been phosphates, nice name for bird poop. Scraped off rocks. Not even processed, just shipped. VeriSign showed up and wanted to buy domain, paying $5 million a year for. Only 10,000 people on small island, suddenly $5 million a year for something you didn’t know you had? Your domain? .TV. Overlords of Internet. Sit on asset without really knowing. Similar, Cameron in Africa. Not as extreme as many more people. Domain is .CM. Reason to have .CM are mistyped .COM. Not as extreme, but still something of value.
Greg Low: .TV is quite popular.
Miha Kralj: Yes.
Greg Low: That brings us to time. Case of where will people see you, calls to action?
Miha Kralj: Words of wisdom. First, you always need to know your past success is your worst enemy. Should never make you happy, slow down, man I’m good. Shows you used to be able to deliver. Are you still able to? Pass success sets bar higher as you’ve tasted success. Are you more or less hungry for success as your competitor? Usually you are less. Otherwise, for your audience, try to think beyond next technology wave. Good to do. Not what’s next SQL release or BI tool; try to think what will really happen to industry long term. What happens if you put data away and don’t know where it physically fits? Relevant that you do organization in just right level of normalization of database or not? All of those megatrends happening aren’t doing much, just changing core fabric of society. Where is your new placement, work wise? What will you do to make money? And society wise. If you think of someone remote in Australia, nice, but not many people, digital world will give second chance. Think that. Fulfilled, self-esteem growth without moving. No need to move. Stay where you are, enjoy local area, be someone successful, money making, online. Big paradigm shift. Explore what your job really will be in ten years. Won’t be what it is today. Three types of people. Those who make things happen, watch things happen, wonder what happened.
Greg Low: That’s excellent. Thank you so much for your time today. Lots of good feed for thought.
Miha Kralj: Pleasure all mine. Thank you for the time.